CD39 degrades extracellular adenosine-triphosphate (eATP), a molecule intimately involved in immune-activation and modulates immunological state in the tumor microenvironment (TME).
CD39 is highly expressed on immune cells and in hematologic and solid tumors and is associated with poor prognosis.
BP1202 is a humanized anti-CD39 therapeutic antibody developed by BrightPath. It has a high affinity and specificity to CD39, and potently inhibits the enzymatic activity of CD39, thereby regulating the balance of eATP and adenosine (Ado) in the TME, preventing immunosuppression and enhancing anti-tumor activity.
While eATP has a pro-inflammatory effect and induces immune responses via the ATP receptor and inflammasome, its degradation product Ado acts in an immunosuppressive manner by decreasing T cell activation and cytokine production. CD39 is highly expressed on several types of immune cells in the TME, including tumor cells, exhausted T cells, regulatory T cells (Treg), macrophages, and dendritic cells, and degrades eATP to Ado via the concerted action with CD73. Due to the effects of eATP and Ado, CD39 regulates a variety of immune responses in the TME by balancing eATP and immunosuppressive Ado. It has been reported that high CD39 expression in the TME is associated with poor prognosis in many hematologic and solid tumors implicating its role in tumor progression.